European College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists

College Constitution

College Constitution
EUROPEAN COLLEGE OF VETERINARY OPHTHALMOLOGISTS (ECVO ©)
(Founded Nov. 27th, 1992 in Giessen, Germany)
 
CONSTITUTION (ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION)
(Amended Barcelona, 18th April 2002)
(Amended Munich, 10th June 2004)
(Amended in Brugge, 11th May 2006)
(Amended in Genova, 1st June 2007)
(Amended in Versailles, 16th May 2008)
(Amended in Copenhagen, 4th June 2009)
(Amended in Berlin, 27th May 2010)
(Amended in Helsinki, 28th May 2015)
(Amended in Antwerp, 23rd May 2019)
(Amended by electronic voting [COVID-19], 25th May 2020)  
 
 
 
Article 1. Location, Name and Structure.
 
1.1. The name of the organisation shall be the European College of Veterinary
Ophthalmologists (ECVO ©), hereafter referred to as "the College".
 
1.2 The College shall have its domicile in Utrecht, The Netherlands. The office
address may be changed at the discretion of the Executive Committee.
 
1.3. The College shall be a part of the general scheme for veterinary
specialization in the E.U., as has been defined by the Advisory Committee for
Veterinary Training (ACVT) of the European Committee. This scheme involves
the European Coordinating Committee for Veterinary Training, the European
Board of Veterinary Specialization (EBVS), and the Speciality Colleges.
 
 
Article 2. Duration.
 
2.1. The College shall be established for an unlimited period.
 
2.2. The College year shall run concurrently with the calendar year, subject to the
first society year ending on the last day of December of the year in which the
College is established.
 
 
Article 3. Objectives and Statements.
 
The primary objectives of the College shall be to advance veterinary
ophthalmology in Europe and increase the competency of those who practise in
this field by:
 
a) establishing guidelines for post-graduate education and training as a
prerequisite to becoming a specialist in the speciality of veterinary
ophthalmology;
 
b) examining and authenticating veterinarians as specialists in veterinary
ophthalmology to serve the veterinary patient, its owner and the public in general,
by providing expert care for animals with ophthalmic disease;
 
c) encouraging research and other contributions to knowledge relating to the
pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapy, prevention, and the control of diseases directly
or indirectly affecting the eye of all animals, and promoting communication and
dissemination of this knowledge.
 
d) The College is a non profit-making organisation and does not pursue
commercial interests.
 
e) College funds may only be spent according to the constitution. Members or
officers of the College receive no payment from the funds of the College, except
reimbursements.
 
f) No member or officer of the College may be favoured by expenditures or
excessively high compensations, which are not  in accordance with the purposes
of the College.
 
 
Article 4. Membership.
 
Section 1.
The members of the College shall be the following:
a) Founding Diplomates
b) Diplomates
c) Honorary Members
d) Retired Diplomates
e) Non-practising Diplomates
f) Associate Members
g) Affiliate Members
 
Section 2.
To qualify for membership, candidates shall meet the following criteria:
a) have a satisfactory moral and ethical standing in the profession;
b) be licensed, or be eligible to be licensed, to practise veterinary medicine in
Europe unless exempted from this obligation by the Credentials Committee and
the Executive Committee;
c) have successfully passed the certifying/examination procedure of the
European College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists, unless exempted from this
obligation by the Credentials Committee and the Executive Committee.
 
Section 3.
Each individual who has successfully passed the qualification procedure of the
College shall be designated Diplomate of the European College of Veterinary
Ophthalmologists and shall be authorized to use the designation of Diplomate of
the European College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists (Dip. ECVO; European
Veterinary Specialist in Ophthalmology), with the exception of section 7 of this
Constitution.
 
Section 4.
Each Diplomate shall be required to keep records of his/her ophthalmological
patients and surgical procedures.
 
Section 5.
Each Diplomate is expected to actively participate in the affairs of the College.
Repeated, unexcused absences from the ECVO-meetings may render a member
subject to disciplinary action by the Executive Committee of the ECVO.
 
Section 6.
Each Diplomate is guided by scientific methods and evidence based medicine,
which complies with animal welfare legislation. Each Diplomate shall also fulfil the
re-evaluation requirements of the ECVO. No credit points can be granted for
education or training in non-scientific or non-evidence-based medicine.
 
Section 7.
Any Diplomate may be expelled, asked to resign or otherwise disciplined for
unprofessional or unethical conduct, or other action against the best interest of
the College by a unanimous vote of the Executive Committee of the ECVO,
pending confirmation by the College at the next Annual General Meeting. The
expelled Diplomate is removed from the EBVS specialist register and is not
allowed to use the Diplomate title or its abbreviations.
 
Section 8.
Voluntary cessation of registration requires notice in writing to be received by the
Secretary twelve months prior to the College's Annual General Meeting and will
be published at the Annual General Meeting.
 
Section 9.
The annual dues (Euro) of each active member for the following years shall be
determined by the Annual General Meeting.  
 
Article 5. Organisation and Officers.
The College shall be composed of all the Diplomates. Every two years the
Diplomates will elect the following officers, by secret ballot:
    •    President
    •    Vice-President
Every three years the Diplomates will elect the following officers, by secret ballot:
    •    Treasurer
    •    Secretary
 
These four officers, and the Past-President, will comprise the Board of the
College. Up to two additional Diplomates may be co-opted as observers and
added to this Board if the five officers agree unanimously to create an Executive
Committee of the College composed of seven members.
The President may not be re-elected to the same office. Usually, the President is
succeeded by the Vice-President.
The College will be represented by:
- the Executive Committee, or
- two of the following officers acting together: President, Vice-President, Past-
President, Treasurer or Secretary.
 
Additionally the Secretary will act as deputy for the President and the Treasurer
will act as deputy for the Vice-President.
Board members can at all times, with reasons given, be suspended and expelled
by the Annual General Meeting of the College.
 
Article 6. Annual General Meeting, Quorum and voting rights.
 
The Annual General Meeting of the College will be held each year during the
Annual Meeting of the European College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists or at
some other appropriate meeting agreed upon by the Officers.
 
An Extraordinary General Meeting of the College can be called at any time by the
Executive Committee, or shall be called by the Executive Committee at the
written request of not less than 10% of the membership. The request should
contain the explanation for such a meeting, and the subsequent Extraordinary
Meeting should take place within a period of three months of receipt of the
request. If not the responsible members are empowered to summon the
Extraordinary Meeting themselves.
 
The quorum required for holding a meeting is fifty per cent plus one, of the voting
members of the College. Voting can be in person or by electronic means. The
Executive Committee decides if the vote is to be taken orally or on paper. Votes
can be “for” or “against”, or members can abstain.  For all decisions, except
amendments to the Constitution, or to confer Honorary Member status, a simple
majority vote is sufficient.
The Executive Committee can hold an electronic ballot at any time outside the
Annual General Meeting and Extraordinary General Meetings.
The same rules apply to electronic ballots as to voting during the Annual General
Meeting and Extraordinary Meetings. An electronic ballot is only valid if a vote is
registered on the secure section of the ECVO website, using unique passwords.
 
The Secretary of the College has to keep the minutes of every Annual General
Meeting. These records must be signed by the Chairman of the Annual General
Meeting and the Secretary.
 
Article 7. Amendments to this Constitution.
 
Proposed amendments to this Constitution shall be submitted to the President
prior to the 31st of December. Any proposed amendment shall be distributed (by
letter, fax or electronic mail) to the membership with a recommendation by the
Officers, at least 30 days prior to the Annual General Meeting and shall be
brought to a vote of the Diplomates at the Annual General Meeting. An affirmative
vote of at least two-thirds of the Diplomates voting shall be required for
adoption.  Every member of the Executive Committee is qualified to register
amendments to the Constitution at the notary.
 
Article 8. Dissolution of the College.
 
In the event of dissolution of the College, or the College losing its status as a non
profit-making organisation, the distribution of all assets shall be determined by
the Annual General Meeting and, as far as possible, consistent with the
objectives of the College.
 
Article 9. Bylaws
 
The College can make and change bylaws, which regulate subjects that are
either not prescribed, or not sufficiently prescribed, in this Constitution. A bylaw
shall not contain any provisions which violate the law, the rules of the EBVS, or
this Constitution.
 
Berlin, May 2010
 
 

 
EUROPEAN COLLEGE OF VETERINARY OPHTHALMOLOGISTS (ECVO ®)
 
BYLAWS
 
(Amended Luxemburg, 11th April 1992)
(Amended Barcelona, 18th April 2002)
(Amended Munich, 10th June 2004)
(Amended Brugge, 11th May 2006)
(Amended Genova, 1st June 2007)
(Amended in Versailles, 16th May 2008)
(Amended in Copenhagen, 4th June 2009)
(Amended in Berlin, 27th May 2010)
(Amended in Berlin, 19th May 2011)
(Amended in Trieste, 23rd May 2012)
(Amended in Barcelona, 16th May 2013)
(Amended in Helsinki, 28th May 2015)
(Amended by electronic voting [COVID-19], 7th July 2020)
(Amended at online AGM [COVID-19], 22nd May 2021)
 
 
 
 
Article 1. General Assembly (Annual General Meeting) and membership
 
1.1. It is the duty of every active Diplomate to attend the Annual General Meeting
at least twice every five years. If the active Diplomate has not attended the AGM
for four consecutive years without previous dispensation of the Executive
Committee, the registration as active Diplomate ceases by default.
 
1.2. The General Assembly is the senior legislative body of the College and has
the following duties:
a) To determine and update the Constitution and Bylaws;
b) To elect the Officers and Auditors.
Elections of officers shall be by written ballot at the Annual General Meeting.
Written nominations must be received by the Executive Secretary at least one
month prior to the annual General Meeting. Alternatively, nominations may be
made from the floor.
c) Action on the auditors' report.
d) Formal approval of the business conducted by the Board during the preceding
year.
e) Action on business, presented by the Board or as required by the Constitution.
f) Establish membership dues for the forthcoming year.
g) Expulsion of Diplomates.
 
1.3. Honorary Members
The college may confer Honorary Member status on persons who have made
exceptional contributions to veterinary ophthalmology. Honorary Members, who
are ECVO-Diplomates, shall have all the rights and privileges of Diplomates.
Honorary Members who are not ECVO-Diplomates, shall have all the rights and
privileges of Diplomates except the right to vote, hold office, or attend Annual
General Meetings of the College. The number of Honorary Members shall not be
greater than 5% of the total number of the College Diplomates. Nomination for
Honorary Member status requires proposal by two Diplomates of good standing.
The proposal should be written and forwarded to the Secretary. It must contain
such information relating to the activities of the nominee in ophthalmology as
required by the Executive Committee.
Election of an Honorary member shall be accomplished by vote of at least two-
thirds of the Executive Committee, and by a vote of at least two-thirds of the
membership at the Annual General Meeting of the College.
 
1.4. Retired Diplomates
A Diplomate who voluntarily ceases practising permanently and irrevocably is
entitled to Retired Diplomate status. Retired Diplomates maintain all privileges of
Diplomates including advisory tasks, except the right to vote or hold office. They
are excluded from article 4, sections 3, 4 and 5 of the Constitution of the ECVO.
The Retired Diplomate is removed from the EBVS specialist register, but is
authorised to use the designation Retired Diplomate ECVO (ret. Dip. ECVO).
 
1.5. Cessation of registration of Diplomates
Registration ceases by default when the speciality is practised insufficiently (e.g.
not practising the speciality for more than 50% of their time based on a normal
working week of 40 hours, with a minimum of 20 hours devoted to
ophthalmology; the re-evaluation requirements are not met etc.), or when the
specialty has not been practised for two continuous years or the equivalent of two
years during a 5 year period. The Non-Practising  Diplomate is removed from the
EBVS specialist register, but is authorised to use the designation non-practising
Diplomate (n.p. Dip. ECVO).  A Non-Practising Diplomate has to satisfy the
criteria determined by the Credentials Committee in order to regain full Diplomate
status.
 
1.6. Associate Members
The College may confer Associate member status on persons who have
contributed significantly to research in veterinary medicine. Admission criteria for
Associate Members are defined by the Board of the College. These criteria have
to ascertain that only scientists of international repute who are active in the field
covered by the College are admitted as Associate Members, furthermore:
a) Associate Members are not conferred a diploma and are not entitled to use the
designation of Diplomate of the ECVO;
b) Associate Members are encouraged to participate in the training of residents
together with Diplomates of the College. Associate Members are not entitled to
act as resident supervisors without a Diplomate responsible for the training
program;
c) Associate Members are not allowed to hold office within the College or to vote
at the Annual Business Meeting. They can be co-opted to College committees as
advisors;
d) Associate Members are encouraged to participate in scientific meetings and
workshops organised by the College;
e) Associate Members are not allowed to advertise their title.
 
 1.7 Affiliate Members
The College may confer Affiliate Member status on Diplomates of other
equivalent veterinary ophthalmology colleges, who are actively practising
veterinary ophthalmology in Europe. Those who wish to apply for Affiliate
Membership must do so in writing to the Chair of the Credentials Committee of
the ECVO. A decision will be made within 60 days of receipt and the Credentials
Committee will make recommendation to the Executive Committee of the ECVO
for final approval, furthermore:
a) Affiliate Members are not entitled to use the designation of ECVO Diplomate,
nor can they register with the EBVS and hold the title of European Specialist in
Veterinary Ophthalmology;
b) Affiliate Members are not allowed to advertise their member status;
c) Affiliate Members cannot hold office within the Executive Committee of the
ECVO, but they can be either elected or co-opted to other ECVO committees or
act in an advisory capacity to these committees;
d) Affiliate Members are required to attend the Annual Business Meeting of the
ECVO but cannot vote at this meeting;
e) Affiliate Members are encouraged to participate in the training of residents
together with ECVO Diplomates. Affiliate Members are not entitled to act as
resident co-supervisors without an ECVO Diplomate responsible for the training
program;
f) Affiliate Members are expected to participate in scientific meetings and
workshops organised by the ECVO;
g) Affiliate Members are required to participate in the ECVO reaccreditation
process to maintain their member status;
h) Affiliate Members must be actively practising veterinary ophthalmology for
more than 50% of their time, based on an average 40 hour working week.

Recognition as an Affiliate Member ceases by default when:
the member ceases to practise in Europe;  
the speciality is practised insufficiently;  
the  speciality has not been practised for two consecutive year or the equivalent
of two years during a five year period.
 
Affiliate Members are bound by all other terms and conditions of the Constitution
and Bylaws.
 
Article 2. Officers.
 
2.1. The officers of the College shall be: President, Vice-President, Secretary,
Treasurer, and Past-President. The term of office for the President, Vice-
President and Past-President is two years. The term of office for the Secretary
and Treasurer is three years.
 
2.2. Election of officers shall be held at the Annual General Assembly of the
College.
 
 
Article 3. Duties of Officers.
 
3.1. President:
The president shall preside at the meetings of the College, preserve order,
regulate debates, appoint Committees not otherwise provided for, announce
results of elections and perform all other duties legitimately appertaining to
his/her office. The President of the College shall be Chairperson of the Finance
Committee
 
3.2. Vice-President:
The vice-president shall perform the duties of the President in his/her absence or
inability to serve. The Vice-President shall, in general, succeed to the Presidency
at the end of the normal 2 year term or should the office fall vacant.
 
3.3. Secretary:
The secretary shall attend to the correspondence of the College, keep and
publish lists annually of Diplomates, both Practising and Non-practising, keep
minutes of the College meetings in records which shall be the property of the
College and be accessible at all reasonable times and places and perform the
usual duties of a secretary. The Secretary shall forward the Annual Report of the
College to the EBVS before the 15th January of the following year.
 
3.4. Treasurer:
The treasurer shall advise the College on all financial matters. He/she shall
arrange for the safekeeping of all funds, draw vouchers, pay bills and expenses,
and submit a written financial statement to all members annually. He/she shall
keep full and accurate books of account, containing a record of all monies
received and expended, which books shall be the property of the College and
open to the inspection of the authorized officials at all reasonable times and
places.
 
3.5. Past-President:
The Past-President shall advise the President.
 
3.6. Vacancies in the offices:
Vacancies occurring on the Board shall be filled by election of a member at the
next Annual General Meeting. Any member elected to fill a vacancy shall hold the
office until expiry of the term in which the vacancy occurred.
 
 
Article 4. Committees
 
4.1. Executive Committee of the College:
The Executive Committee of the College shall consist of the officers and up to
two co-opted Diplomates acceptable to the officers.
The Executive Committee shall consider all the business and policies pertaining
to the affairs of the College. It, or its designated Committees, shall receive all
applications, conduct examinations and certify recommendations for Diplomate
status in the College. It shall consider and act upon charges against Diplomates
for alleged offences against the Constitution and Bylaws of the College or
charges of unprofessional conduct and shall have the authority to recommend the
expulsion of a Diplomate for grievous offences.  
It shall appoint standing or ad hoc Committees, as deemed necessary, select the
time and place of meetings and determine the fees for application, examinations,
registrations and other fees. It shall direct the management of funds held by the
College.
The Past President and/or President and/or Vice-President will in general act as
representatives on the European Board of Veterinary Specialization (EBVS),
although the Executive Committee may choose to appoint any active Diplomate
to serve as the College’s representative on the EBVS, preferably for a period of
at least 2 years.
 
4.2. Credentials Committee:
The Credentials Committee shall be composed of up to nine members appointed
by the Chair, in agreement with the Executive Committee, for a term of three
years that can be repeated twice. The President shall be an ex officio member of
this committee.
The duties of the Credentials Committee will be as follows:
a) to perform a preliminary assessment of the eligibility of applicants prior to their
admission to any ECVO residency programme as described in Article 5.1.1a;
b) to establish guidelines (for credentials submission) to assist applicants with
their application to sit the diploma examination;
c) to receive, review, and approve the candidacy of applicants;
d) to provide a list of candidates with approved credentials to the Examination
Committee in a timely fashion.
 
 
4.3. Examination Committee:
The Examination Committee shall be composed of up to nine members
appointed by the Chair, in agreement with the Executive Committee, for a term of
three years that can be repeated twice. The President shall be an ex officio
member of this committee.
The Examination Committee is responsible for the preparation and administration
of diploma examinations. Results of examinations shall be forwarded by the
Chairperson of the Examination Committee to the officers of the College with
recommendations regarding the awarding of diplomas.
 
4.4. Nominating Committee:
The Nominating Committee shall be composed of three members appointed by
the Executive Committee for a term of one year before the elections. The
Committee shall prepare a list of candidates for the possible election to the Board
of the College after a written call for candidates to all the Diplomates at least
three months before the elections. The list of candidates should be known by the
Diplomates one month before the elections. The Committee will report to the
College at the Annual General Meeting.
 
4.5. Education and Residency Committee:
The Education and Residency Committee (E&RC) shall be composed of up to ten
members appointed by the Chair, in agreement with the Executive Committee, for
a term of three years that can be repeated twice. The President shall be an ex
officio member of this committee.
The ERC is responsible for setting criteria for the residency programmes, for
approving the programmes and their sponsors, and for monitoring each resident's
progress through the receipt of regular reports. The ERC will maintain lists of
approved residency programmes, approved supervisors and current residents. It
will document detailed requirements for residency programmes that are
necessary for approval by the ECVO.
In exceptional cases, a candidate whose circumstances do not permit enrolment
in a regular programme may submit an equivalent, alternative programme, in
cooperation with his/her supervisor, the College, and the resources available to
the individual, for advanced study and experience. The equivalent programme
should be approved by the ERC before the candidate embarks on it.
The ERC will receive the required periodic reports from directors of resident
training on the annual progress of each candidate in every ophthalmology
residency (due on the anniversary of the residency).

4.6. Finance Committee:
The Finance Committee shall consist of three members, the President shall serve
as Chairperson, and the Treasurer will be a member. The third member shall be
appointed by the Executive Committee.
This Committee shall prepare an annual budget for the College, assist in
preparing the Treasurer's accounts for the annual audit and advise the Board on
financial affairs of the College.
 
4.7. Auditors:
Two auditors are elected by the General Assembly at the Annual General
Meeting for a one year term. The two auditors review the accounts prepared by
the Finance Committee and report their findings to the General Assembly. Only
after their report, can the General Assembly discharge the Treasurer for his/her
annual statement.  
 
4.8. Re-evaluation Committee:
The Re-evaluation Committee shall consist of up to nine members appointed by
the Chair, in agreement with the Executive Committee, for a term of three years
that can be repeated twice.
The Re-evaluation Committee shall reassess the Diplomate status of every
Diplomate every five (5) years by a 100 credit point re-evaluation system. The re-
evaluation process will be effective as from January 1st 2003.
If any Diplomate has accrued insufficient points in the five years prior to re-
evaluation, the Re-evaluation Committee will notify the Executive Committee and
Diplomate of this deficiency. The Diplomate will need to satisfy the criteria
determined by the Credentials Committee to be successfully re-accredited.
Rarely, this may include re-sitting the examination at the discretion of the
Credentials and Executive Committees.     
 
4.9. Hereditary Eye Disease (HED) Committee:
a) The HED Committee shall consist of up to nine members appointed by the
Chair, in agreement with the HED, Advisory and Executive Committees, for a
term of three years that can be repeated twice. The President shall be an ex
officio member of this committee.   
b) The HED Committee shall provide and maintain a Hereditary Eye Disease
Scheme, hereafter called “The Scheme”. The rules of The Scheme are to be
accepted by the Executive Committee, but can be amended at any AGM.
c) The HED Committee shall provide and maintain a manual for further
definitions, guidelines, recommendations and information for the examination of
the animal eye and its adnexa for Known or Presumed Hereditary Eye Diseases
(KP-HED).
d) The HED Committee shall have an Advisory Committee consisting of one or,
for panels performing more than 5000 examinations per year, a maximum of two
appointed representatives from each of the active panels of the ECVO HED
Scheme.
e) The national registries shall report the total number of annual HED eye
examinations completed by the national panellists to the HED Committee within
90 days of the start of the following year.  
 
4.10 Communications Committee:
The Communications Committee shall be composed of up to nine members
appointed by the Chair, in agreement with the Executive Committee, for a term of
three years that can be repeated twice. The Executive Secretary shall serve as a
member of the committee ex officio.
The duties of the Communications Committee will be as follows:
a) To enhance the public and professional profile of the ECVO through
development of website content, social media and promotional materials;
b) To provide a mechanism for effective communication between ECVO, its
members, residents, potential residents, professional associations, members of
the public and general practitioners;  
c) To ensure that ECVO retains rights to website content and possesses all
necessary hosting information and passwords to access that content.

4.11 Planning Committee:
The Planning Committee shall be composed of four to six members appointed by
the Executive Committee for a term of three years.  The senior member of the
committee in terms of service will serve as Chairperson, unless the Executive
Committee decides otherwise.  The Treasurer and Vice-President shall serve as
members of the committee ex officio.   
The duties of the Planning Committee will be as follows:
a) To propose date(s) and location of the Annual Meeting in conjunction with the
Professional Conference Organizer (PCO) and in accordance with standard
operating procedures);  
b) To prepare a provisional budget for each Annual Meeting in collaboration with
the PCO;
c) To promote the Annual Meeting in accordance with the standard operating
procedures;
d) To determine and update, on an annual basis, the Decision Taking Procedures
(DTPs) including deadlines for all committees involved in Annual Meeting
organization;
e) To orchestrate the activities of other committees involved in Annual Meeting
organization and serve as the main relay point in communications between these
committees, the PCO and Executive Committee.

4.12 Scientific Committee:
The Scientific Committee shall be composed of up to nine members appointed by
the Chair, in agreement with the Executive Committee, for a term of three years
that can be repeated twice.    
The duties of the Scientific Committee will be as follows:
a) To determine appropriate scientific topics for the program of the annual
scientific meeting, identify and make initial contact with potential invited speakers
to provide this content;
b) To solicit and critically review abstracts for the annual scientific meeting;
c) To select and assign oral and poster presentations based on abstracts
submitted;  
d) To establish the program schedule for the scientific meeting in collaboration
with the PCO;  
e) To assign session chairpersons for the annual scientific meetings;
f) To provide guidelines for, and to solicit grant proposals for ECVO-sponsored
research.
 
4.13. Indemnification:
Members of Committees will receive no indemnification.
 
4.14 Standard Operating Procedures:  
Details of operating procedures for the Committees are to be described in the
Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) documents. SOP documents are made
following agreement between the relevant Committee members and the
Executive Committee.  
 
 
Article 5. Diploma
 
5.1. Qualifications to sit the diploma examination:
 
The candidate should possess a veterinary degree from an EAEVE-approved
veterinary school, unless relieved of this obligation by the Credentials Committee.
 
Three categories of candidates will be allowed to sit the examination: 1) those
giving evidence of satisfactory completion of a pre-approved regular residency
training programme, of at least four years by the application deadline, of general
veterinary education, training, and practice and of special education, training, and
practice of veterinary ophthalmology, both after the date of graduation from
veterinary school.  
 
The following sequence of training is to be used:
a) A first period with a minimum of one year must be a rotating internship, or its
equivalent, as defined by the ECVO Credentials Committee;  
b) A second residency period shall comprise a postgraduate training programme
with a minimum of three years under supervision of Diplomates of the ECVO or
its equivalent, at the discretion of the ECVO Credentials Committee. This period
is designed to educate the resident primarily in the art and science of
ophthalmology. There shall be additional instruction in the related disciplines of
radiology, anaesthesiology, clinical pathology and the basic sciences of anatomy,
physiology, and pathology.
 2) those with a pre-approved alternative residency trainingprogramme, with a
minimum of one year of a rotating internship or two years in general practice and
at least three years in the discipline of veterinary ophthalmology under
supervision of Diplomates of the ECVO, or its equivalent, at the discretion of the
Credentials Committee;
 
There shall be no restriction of training institutions as long as they meet the
requirements for an ECVO-approved residency.
A Supervisor shall have no more than two (2) residents; in exceptional cases the
Education and Residency Committee can allow three (3) residents, for a
restricted period. Each supervisor shall prepare a statement that the candidate
has satisfactorily completed the approved time of training.
 ?3) those who are internationally recognized in the field of veterinary
ophthalmology with assessment by other means at the discretion of the
Credentials Committee and the Executive Committee.
In addition all categories shall meet the requirements for written reports which
are:
- one (1) original, ophthalmological, internationally peer reviewed paper of which
the applicant must be the principal author and the paper has been accepted,
which includes an extensive, informative English written summary and is indexed
in the publication databases CAB or PubMed;
- one (1) ophthalmological, internationally peer reviewed case report or original
paper of which the applicant is author or co-author and the paper has been
accepted, which includes an extensive, informative English written summary and
is indexed in the publication databases CAB or PubMed.
 
 
5.2. Examination:
The examination will include:
1. a written section of multiple choice and/or essay questions;
2. a written section based on images of ophthalmic (related) diseases followed by
multiple choice and/or essay questions;
3. a practical section of cadaver and/or live case evaluation, where clinical and
surgical competences and skills are examined (practically and orally)
 
The candidate shall sit the full exam within 3 years after the satisfactory
completion of their approved residency training programme of the ECVO (Art
5.1.1.b.), unless exempted by the Credentials Committee.
   
The examination shall be taken in English only; the use of non-medical
dictionaries during examinations or a non-medical interpreter during oral
examination is permitted.
 
The candidate shall submit the non-refundable examination fee, which shall be
determined annually, at the time of application.
 
Candidates must pass the examination within eight years of the completion of the
residency programme. The candidate may sit the examination on a total of four
(4) occasions only. Applications of candidates to sit the examination on second
and subsequent occasions shall be reviewed and approved annually by the
incoming Examination Committee chairperson and the incoming Credentials
Committee chairperson.
Credentials of candidates who pass the examination will be forwarded to the
President by the Chairperson of the Examination Committee.
Further details of the requirements for the training programme, admission,
application procedure, and the qualifying examination may be provided in a
separate information brochure of the College.
 
 
Article 6. Finances.
 
The College is a non-profit-making organisation. The expenses of the College
shall be met through various sources of income.
a) Donations from companies and international organisations.
b) Income from educational meetings organized by the College.
c) Investment income.
d) Annual dues
 
6.1.          
a) The financial year begins on the first of January and ends on the thirty-first of
December of each year.
As an exception the first financial year shall begin on the registration date of the
College and end on the thirty-first of December 1992.
b) The accounts of the last financial year and the budget of the following financial
year shall be submitted annually for the approval to the Annual General Meeting
not later than the thirtieth of April.
 
6.2. Annual dues
The annual dues (Euro) of each active member for the following years shall be
determined by the General Assembly. Dues are payable by the Annual General
Meeting of each year. Members shall be adjudged delinquent if they are one year
in arrears, and may be voted for removal by the membership if two years have
elapsed without payment.
ECVO Diplomates by examination do not pay dues in the first year of joining the
College.  
The Retired Diplomate and Honorary Member will not be required to pay dues to
the College nor an EBVS fee. The Non-Practising Diplomate of the College will
be required to pay reduced dues to the College and the standard EBVS fee. The
Affiliate Member will be required to pay the standard dues to the College but not
the EBVS fee.
 
6.3. Insurance
The College is required to maintain insurance to indemnify itself against legal
costs.
 
Article 7. Meetings.
 The Executive Committee and the Chairpersons of the Credentials and
Examination Committees shall meet at least once annually between consecutive
Annual General Meetings, when judged appropriate by the President.
 
Article 8. Amendments
These BYLAWS may be amended at any Annual General Meeting by two-thirds
of the votes cast. This includes the rules for The Scheme in article 4.9b, with the
exception of the appendices. Proposed amendments must be submitted in writing
to the Secretary minimum 60 days before the meeting, for appropriate review by
the Executive Committee. Proposed amendments shall be distributed by
electronic mail to the membership within thirty days of its appointment.
 
Article 9. Appeal against Adverse Decisions
9.1 Adverse decisions by the College include, but are not limited to:
a) denial of approval of a training (residency) program
b) denial of adequacy of an individual’s credential
c) failure of an examination or part of an examination
d) denial of Diplomate status to an individual
e) temporary or permanent suspension of a Diplomate
 
In the event of an adverse decision by the College, the Secretary shall notify the
affected person or the Dean of a college or official of an institution or practice
organisation in which the affected training program is located, and advise them of
the procedure for appealing against the adverse decision.
 
The College will charge a fee, payable in advance, to cover the administrative
expenses of any appeal. The fee must be deposited in the bank account of the
College, and a receipt for this deposit sent by the appellant at the time of
submission of the other documentation of the appeal.
 
9.2 Any candidate who wishes to appeal against the decision on their application
for eligibility to sit the examination must do so within one week minimally and
three weeks maximally of the date and time stamp of their notification. The
request for appeal must be made in writing to the Secretary and shall include a
statement of the grounds for reconsideration, together with documentation in
support of the petition. The Secretary will notify the President of the College and
the Chairperson of the Credentials Committee and evaluation of the grounds for
the appeal must be completed within 20 working days. The appellant should be
notified of the decision together with the reasons for the decision and informed of
the membership of the Appeals Committee within 15 working days. The President
shall appoint a committee of three Diplomates who are not officers, or members
of the Education and Residency Committee, or members of the Credentials
Committee to serve as an Appeals Committee and the Appellant must be given
the right to approve the composition of the Committee. The nature of any
objection to the composition of the Committee raised by the Appellant will be
examined by the Executive Committee and if necessary personnel replaced. The
Appeals Committee will be convened within 30 days of informing the Appellant.
The candidate’s complete dossier will be provided for the Appeal’s Committee to
review and the Committee shall return its verdict within 60 days of its
appointment. Where there are no proper grounds for the appeal the College will
inform the Appellant that it may take no further action, explaining the reasons
why, or that it will consider the appeal to be a request for an informal review of an
adverse decision by the College’s Executive Committee on non-appealable
grounds.  
 
9.3 Any candidate who wishes to appeal against the decision on failure in the
examination must do so within one week minimally and three weeks maximally of
the date and time stamp of his/her notification. The request for appeal must be
made in writing to the Secretary and must include a statement of the grounds for
reconsideration together with documentation in support of the petition. The
Secretary will notify the President of the College and the Chairperson of the
Examination Committee and evaluation of the grounds for the appeal must be
completed within 20 working days. The appellant should be notified of the
decision together with the reasons for the decision and informed of the
membership of the Appeals Committee within 15 working days.  The President
shall appoint a committee of three Diplomates who are not officers or members of
the Examination Committee to serve as an Appeals Committee within 30 days of
notice of an appeal and the Appellant must be given the right to approve the
composition of the Committee. Any objection raised by the Appellant to the
composition of the Committee will be examined by the Executive Committee, with
possible referral to the EBVS if necessary. The Appeals Committee will be
convened within 30 days of informing the Appellant. The Chairperson of the
Examination Committee shall submit the examination scores of the candidate, the
complete list of scores of all candidates in that examination, and a statement of
the criteria used for the Committee's recommendation for a pass or a fail to the
Appeals Committee, indicating the reason(s) for rejecting the candidate. The
Appeals Committee shall return its verdict within 60 days of its appointment.
Where there are no proper grounds for the appeal the College will inform the
Appellant that it may taken o further action, explaining the reasons why, or that it
will consider the appeal to be a request for an informal review of an adverse
decision by the College’s Executive Committee on non-appealable grounds.
 
9.4 Any dean of a college, or official of an institution or practice organisation, who
wishes to appeal against the decision for the denial of approval or withdrawal of
approval of a training programme must do so within one week minimally and
three weeks maximally of the date and time stamp of the adverse notification.
The request for appeal must be made in writing to the Secretary and shall include
a statement of the grounds for reconsideration together with documentation in
support of the petition. The Secretary will notify the President of the College and
the Chairperson Education and Residency Committee and evaluation of the
grounds for the appeal must be completed within 20 working days. The President
shall appoint a committee of three Diplomates who are not officers or members of
the Education and Residency Committee to serve as an Appeals Committee
within 20 days of notice of an appeal and the Appellant must be given the right to
approve the composition of the Committee. The Chairperson of the Education
and Residency Committee shall submit a written statement to the Appeals
Committee indicating the reason(s) for denial of approval of the training
programme and the Appeals Committee shall return its verdict within 60 days of
its appointment. Where there are no proper grounds for appeal the College will
inform the Appellant that it may take no further action, explaining the reasons
why, or that it will consider the appeal to be a request for an informal review of an
adverse decision by the College`s Executive Committee on non-appealable
grounds.
 
9.5 After completion of the appropriate procedure as described above, the
affected party, if not satisfied with the final decision rendered by the ECVO
Appeals Committee, may request mediation by European Board of Veterinary
Specialization.
The President of the ECVO will present the Board's decision to the EBVS who
will inform him/her of their decision afterwards. The decision of the EBVS is final.
 
9.6 Conduct of an Appeal Process
a. Within its Appeals Procedures the College provides a process by which the
Appeals Committee will conduct the appeal and all appeals will be conducted in
confidence.
 
b. The Appeals Committee will be able to request information relevant to its
Consideration of the Appeal from any relevant party.
 
c. The Appeals Committee will be required to consider carefully the need or not
for an oral hearing. Where the Appeals Committee decides not to hold an oral
hearing in an appeal against an adverse decision that arises from an allegation of
impropriety against a candidate (or in other matters of similar gravity), reasons for
that decision will be given. Where an oral hearing is held, a timetable will be
devised which allows both parties reasonable opportunity to appear.
 
d. An oral hearing must be attended by at least three members of the Appeals
Committee. Neither party may be represented by legal counsel, although the
provisions of the law in the country where the College is registered must be taken
into consideration. Oral hearings will be conducted in English. The Appellant may
be accompanied by an individual (“representative”), who may assist them to
present the appeal. The “representative” will not be allowed to participate in
answering specific questions but, at the discretion of the Chairperson, may be
allowed to provide necessary language translations and may be allowed to make
a statement on behalf of the Appellant at the end of the proceedings.
 
e. A transcript or detailed minutes of the meeting will be kept. An electronic
recording may be made with the prior consent of all parties. The minutes and, if
made, the electronic recording, will be made available to the meeting’s
participants on request.
 
f. The Appeals Committee will have the discretion to reject or uphold the appeal
According to its independent view of the merits of the appeal. Where the appeal
is upheld, in whole or in part, the Appeals Committee may modify or reverse the
previous decision or adjust the sanction.
 
g. The decision of the Appeals Committee will be reached by a majority vote of
the members of the Committee, the Chairperson to have the casting vote if
necessary. In communicating the decision of the Appeals Committee, the
Chairperson will give reasons for the decision.
 
h. The Appeals Committee will deliver its decision on the appeal to a nominated
Executive Officer of the College within 90 days of the date of receiving all the
papers relating to the dispute. The Executive Committee of the College will check
that the Appeals Committee has followed the procedures and, if these have been
followed correctly, accept their recommendation. The Executive Committee of the
College will communicate the decision, via electronic means and in addition, if
there is no satisfactory confirmation of receipt, via registered post, to the
Appellant, within 30 days of receipt of the appeal decision.